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The eyes and their problems

The gift of sight is one of the most precious treasures we are born with. Yet we tend to take our eyes for granted and give
scarce attention to their care. With just a little care, our eyes can be our greatest assets. A human eye works on the same
principle as a camera. Just as a camera lens is focused on an object to form an image on film, the cornea and lens of the eye
focus to form images on the retina. These are then transmitted to the brain. As with most functions of the body, vision depends
on the condition and upkeep of the key elements of an eye. For normal vision :
– The cornea, which is also known as the ‘window’ of the eye, must be clear, free of any distortion and moist on the surface.
– The lens must be crystal clear and without significant cataract formation.
– The retina must have no degeneration.
– The Optic Nerve must be able to send images from the retina to the brain, which then must interpret what has been seen.
– the eye pressure must be within normal limits.
– Vision development occurs between 4-9 years. Any eye ailment, if not promptly treated, affects vision.

– Refractive Error : the average length of an adult eyeball is 24mm. In the case of a refractive error, this length either increases
or decreases. As a result, the person faces problems in focusing and sees blurred images. A shortening of the length of the
eyeball is known as Hypermetropia. An increase in this length is known as Myopia.
– Astigmatism : Images do not focus evenly in all directions/axis.
– Cataract : Often associated with the process of ageing. It is among the most commonly known diseases of the eye. Cataract causes
opacity in the lens and results in blurred vision.
– Glaucoma : It is a disease of the eye marked by increased pressure within the eyeball. this increased pressure can damage the optic
nerve and cause blindness.
– Presbyopia : An eye ailment caused by a decreased elasticity in the eye’s crystalline lens, makes it difficult to focus on
nearby objects. This is commonly encountered after 40 years of age and can be corrected upon diagnosis with lenses.
– Retinopathy : A disease of the retina often caused by diabetes, can lead to multiple problems like haemorrhage or detachment. In addition,
problems like night blindness and Vitamin A deficiency may also be encountered.

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