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Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

Doctors recommend that women help reduce their risk of cervical cancer by having regular Pap tests. A Pap test is a simple test used to look at cervical cells. Pap tests can find cervical cancer or abnormal cells that can lead to cervical cancer. To perform a Pap test, a health professional uses a spatula, brush, or cotton swab to collect cells from the cervix The narrow, lower end of the uterus (womb). and cervical canal. The cells are then “smeared” on a slide, preserved with a fixative, stained, and sent to a laboratory for microscopic analysis by a cytopathologist.
If the Pap test results show some problems, then your doctor will perform these tests :

Cone Biopsy

A cone-shaped piece of tissue is removed. The cone biopsy is also a treatment, and can completely remove many precancers and early cancers. More than 90 percent of cervical cancers can be halted with this technique without further treatment. Tissue is removed from the area between the ectocervix and the endocervix. It includes two methods :
– LEEP : A loop electro surgical excision procedure (LEEP) is a procedure done under local anesthesia to remove tissue from the cervix. A LEEP uses an electrically charged wire loop to remove a tissue sample.
– Cold knife cone biopsy : The physician uses a surgical scalpel or laser (intense, focused light beam) to remove abnormal cervical tissue. It is done under general anesthesia.


The colposcope combines a bright light with a magnifying lens to make tissue easier to see. It is not inserted into the vagina. A colposcopy is usually done in the doctor’s office or clinic. If colposcopy reveals abnormal areas on the cervix, the physician will order a biopsy.

Endocervical Curretage

After the anasthesia is given, a narrow instrument called a curette is inserted into the endocervix and cells are taken.

Dilation And Curettage (D&C)

During a “D&C,” the physician enlarges the cervix (dilation) and scrapes the inside of the uterus and cervical canal (curettage) to remove tissue for microscopic analysis.


It examines a photographic image of the cervix. Cervicography may clarify abnormal Pap test results in women.

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