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How can cervical cancer be treated ?

Different types of treatment are available for patients with cervical cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.
Three types of standard treatment are used:

Surgery

Surgery is an option for women with Stage I or II cervical cancer. The surgeon removes tissue that may contain cancer cells :
– Radical trachelectomy: The surgeon removes the cervix, part of the vagina, and the lymph nodes in the pelvis.
– Total hysterectomy: The surgeon removes the cervix and uterus.
– Radical hysterectomy: The surgeon removes the cervix, some tissue around the cervix, the uterus, and part of the vagina.
– Cryosurgery: A treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue, such as carcinoma in situ. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.
– Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgery to remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes.
– Lymph nodes: The surgeon may remove the lymph nodes near the tumor to see if they contain cancer.

Radiation therapy

It may be used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that remain in the area. Women with cancer that extends beyond the cervix may have radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It affects cells only in the treated area.
– External beam radiation is usually given five times a week for five or six weeks, with an extra boost of radiation at the end of that time.
– Implant radiation (brachytherapy) puts cancer-killing radiation as close to the tumor as possible, but spares the healthy tissue nearby. The radioactive material is either placed in a capsule and inserted into the cervix, or placed in thin needles that are inserted directly into the tumor.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body

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