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How Are Bone Cancers Staged ?

Staging is a process that tells the doctor how wide spread a cancer may be. It will show whether the cancer has spread and how far. The treatment will depend on what stage has the bone cancer reached.
The American Joint Commission on Cancer has devised a system to stage bone cancer based on three factors.
– T stands for the size of the tumor.
– N stands for lymph node involvement.
– M stands for spread (metastasis) to distant organs.
– G stands for the tumor grade.

T stages of bone cancer :
TX: Primary tumor can’t be measured.
T0: No evidence of the tumor.
T1: Tumor is 8 cm (around 3 inches) or less.
T2: Tumor is larger than 8 cm.
T3: Tumor is in more than one place on the same bone.

N Stages :
N0: No spread to nearby (regional) lymph nodes.
N1: Cancer detected in nearby lymph nodes.

M Stages :
M0: No distant metastasis.
M1: Distant metastasis (cancer has spread to other tissues or organs).
M1a: Cancer has spread only to the lung.
M1b: Cancer has spread to other sites.

Grades :
G1–G2: Low grade
G3–G4: High grade

Once all of these stages have been determined in a particular case of cancer, the data are combined, and an overall stage is given to the disease.
– Stage IA: T1, N0, M0, G1-G2: Tumor is confined to the bone, less than 8 cm in size, and is low grade.
– Stage IB: T2, N0, M0, G1-G2: Tumor is confined to the bone, larger than 8 cm, and is low grade.
– Stage IIA: T1, N0, M0, G3-G4: Tumor is confined to the bone, less than 8 cm, and is high grade.
– Stage IIB: T2, N0, M0, G3-G4: Tumor is confined to the bone, larger than 8 cm, and is high grade.
– Stage III: T3, N0, M0, Any G: Tumor is confined to the bone but tumor cells are detected at other sites on the bone.
– Stage IVA: Any T, N0, M1a, Any G: Tumor has spread to the lung.
– Stage IVB: Any T, N1, Any M, Any G: Tumor has spread to lymph nodes and distant sites, or Any T, Any N, M1b, Any G: Tumor has spread to distant sites other than the lung.

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