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What are different treatment options for prostate cancer ?

The treatment options for prostate cancer depend in part on your age, your overall health and whether the tumor has spread. Usually, tumors that have grown beyond the edge of the prostate can’t be cured with either radiation or surgery. They can be treated with hormones that slow the cancer’s growth.
Even physicians suggest that every man should have PSA test for prostate screening. If the DRE or PSA shows the abnormality, biopsy is done to the patient. In case of severity of the diseases, tests like CT scans or MRIs are done.

Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. This is usually used in older men with other medical problems and early- stage disease.

Prostatectomy

It is the most common treatment option for localised prostate cancer. It involves surgical removal of prostate gland and some other near by tissues and reattaching the urethra and bladder. It will prevent further spread of the cancer. If the prostate cancer is in the early stages, prostatectomy can treat the cancer completely. This procedure also produce side effects like impotency, Urinary incontinence, narrowing of the urethra and difficulty in urination.

Radiation therapy

It is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. Impotence and urinary problems may occur in men treated with radiation therapy.

Hormone Therapy

It is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. The purpose of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones, called androgens, which are produced mostly in the testicles. Androgens, such as testosterone, help the prostate tumor grow. Shots or pills can be given over a period of several months, or the testicles can be surgically removed. Some of the more serious side effects include loss of sex drive, weakened bones, erectile dysfunction, fatigue and osteoporosis.

Chemotherapy

It is a combination of drugs which is effective to kill or slow the growth of rapidly multiplying cells. Chemotherapy is usually prescribed to men with advanced prostate cancer. Side effects include hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lowered blood counts, reduced ability of the blood to clot, and an increased risk of infection.

Cryotherapy

an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum to produce a picture that the physician will watch on a monitor. The physician will insert probes into the prostate through small incisions between the rectum and scrotum. These probes deliver liquid nitrogen to the prostate, which freezes the tissue and kills cancer cells.

TURP

A procedure called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) removes just a portion of the prostate, with an instrument that is inserted through the urethra. The cancer is removed from the prostate by electricity that passes through the end of this special instrument.

Biologic therapy

Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer.

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