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What is osteoporosis and what are the signs and symptoms of osteoporosis ?

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and loss of bone tissue that may lead to weak and fragile bones. Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone micro architecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered.
Osteoporosis is most common in women after menopause, when it is called postmenopausal osteoporosis, but may also develop in men.

Causes of Osteoporosis

– Osteoporosis occurs when there is an imbalance between new bone formation and old bone resorption.
– The body may fail to form enough new bone, or too much old bone may be reabsorbed, or both.
– The leading cause of osteoporosis is a lack of certain hormones, particularly estrogen in women and androgen in men.
– Other factors that may contribute to bone loss in this age group include inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, lack of weight-bearing exercise, and other age-related changes in endocrine functions.

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis can be present without any symptoms for decades because osteoporosis doesn’t cause symptoms until bone fractures. he symptom associated with osteoporotic fractures usually is pain; the location of the pain depends on the location of the fracture.

Risk factors of Osteoporosis

– Getting older.
– Being small and thin.
– Having a family history of osteoporosis.
– Taking certain medicines.
– Being a white or Asian woman.
– Having osteopenia, which is low bone mass.
– Cigarette smoking, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia, low amounts of calcium in the diet, heavy alcohol consumption, inactive lifestyle, and use of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and anticonvulsants, are also risk factors.
– Rheumatoid arthritis itself is a risk factor for osteoporosis.

Facts and Figures

– Osteoporosis is a major public health threat for 44 million Americans, 68 percent of whom are women.
– One out of every two women and one in four men age 50 and older will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime.
– Osteoporosis can strike at any age.
– Osteoporosis is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually, including approximately 300,000 hip fractures, 700,000 vertebral fractures, 250,000 wrist fractures, and more than 300,000 fractures at other sites.

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