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Parkinson- a disease of nervous system or a motor system disorder

Parkinson’s is a neurological condition or condition of the nervous system that is characterized by problems with body movements, although other non-motor symptoms can also occur. It is a disease of motor system disorder, involving the degeneration of the central nervous system. It occurs when certain nerve cells in a part of the brain die or become impaired. Normally, these cells produce a vital chemical known as dopamine, which allows smooth, coordinated functioning of the muscles. When approximately 80% of the dopamine producing cells are damaged, the symptoms of Parkinson appear.
The main physical symptoms of parkinson disease are:
– Slowness of movement.
– Stiffness
– Sometimes tremor and loss of balance
These are called the Motor symptoms.
The Non-Motor Symptoms of PD are:
– Constipation
– Skin Sensations and Pain
– Speech & Swallowing Difficulties
– Tiredness or Fatigue
– Sleep Disturbances
– Depression

The type and severity of symptoms vary from person to person. Different symptoms may appear as PD progresses. As the disease progresses, non-motor symptoms may also appear, such as depression, difficulty swallowing, sexual problems or cognitive changes.

It generally occurs after age 65. The disease is associated with both the physical and psychological health of a person. At a young age, its psychological impact is very high. In the clinical management of the disease, synthetic dopamine is given in the initial years to improve the condition of the person. But these medicines have some side-effects such as uncontrolled movement, nightmares, hallucinations and blood pressure fluctuations. Their side effects become very severe after 8 to 10 years and at that stage surgery is required.

Deep brain stimulation surgery is emerging as a popular therapy for treating this disease. A brain electrode is introduced inside the subthalamic nucleus of the brain under stereotactic localisation. these electrodes are then connected to the pulse generator. The stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus through this device leads to improvement in all symptoms of parkinson’s disease.

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