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What is Diabetes Insipidus? What are its causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment for diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes Insipidus is a rare disease caused by the failure of the kidneys to conserve water and stops filtering urine. Diabetes insipidus is not same as diabetes mellitus. This disease leads to excessive urination and thirst which is one common symptom between diabetes mellitus and insipidus. The fluid retention is managed by anti-diuretic hormone which is produced in the brain by hypothalamus as well as controlled by pituitary gland located at the bottom of the brain.

The extra fluid is removed through kidneys from bloodstream. This fluid is stored as urine in bladder. If the fluid regulation system is working properly, the kidneys make less urine when body is loosing water or at night when the metabolic rates are slow.

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES INSIPIDUS
– Frequent urination.
– Colorless urine.
– Bed-wetting.
– Disruption is sleep.
– Dry skin and weakness.
– Fever.
– Vomiting.
– Diarrhea.

TYPES OF DIABETES INSIPIDUS
– Central Diabetes Insipidus : Head injury, infection, surgery and tumor can cause damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland that can cause central diabetes insipidus. It disrupts the storage and release of ADH.
– Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus : Kidneys do not respond to ADH. It can be caused due to some chronic disorders or some drugs.
– Dipsogenic Diabetes Insipidus : It is a rare form of diabetes insipidus and is caused when there is a defect or problem in the thirst mechanism. The thirst increases abnormally resulting in more urine output.
– Gestational Diabetes Insipidus : It occurs during pregnancy. It occurs when and enzyme made by the placenta destroys ADH in the mother.

DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES INSIPIDUS
There is a possibility that diabetes mellitus can cause diabetes insipidus. Diagnosis includes:
– Physical examinations.
– Blood tests.
– Urinalysis is the physical and chemical examination of urine.
– Fluid deprivation test helps in determining whether diabetes insipidus is caused by excessive intake of fluid, defect in ADH production or defect in kidney’s response to ADH.

Complications may include dehydration, weakness, fatigue, low body temperature, kidney and brain damage, headaches.

Prevention includes drinking plenty of fluids, following a low salt diet, few medications may help. Treatment includes:
– Vasopressin can be taken to cure central diabetes insipidus.
– Stopping the medication can treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
– Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is treated with fluid intake to match urine output and drugs that lower urine output.

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