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Goitre and Thyroid Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland at the base of your neck and below Adam’s Apple and close to the collar bones. Thyroid secretes hormones T3 which is called thyroxine and T4 which is called triidothyronine. They control how fast and efficiently cells convert nutrients into energy. Thyroid gland is controlled by pituitary gland and it produces a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).


The enlargement of thyroid gland is called goitre. It keeps on producing normal levels of thyroid hormones.
Symptoms include swelling in the neck. It causes cough, suffocating feeling during sleep and food stuck in throat.
The causes of goitre include an iodine deficient diet and an increased TSH which senses the decreased hormones produced by thyroid gland and turns on the heat. This stimulation causes the thyroid gland to enlarge.
The treatment for small to moderate sized goitre is done by oral thyroid hormones which reduces the production of TSH and stabilizes the gland size.
For large sized goitre, surgery may be needed which compresses the wind pipe and food pipe or if there is a suspicion of malignancy.


It is the malignant tumor of the gland and is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. It occurs three times more common in women and it is not age specific.
The symptoms for thyroid cancer include a painless solid lump in front of your neck which could be diagnosed during a physical examination.
The causes of thyroid cancer are unknown but risk factors include genes, exposure to environmental radiation or radiation therapy of neck, head or chest.
The diagnosis of thyroid cancer is done through blood tests, ultrasound of thyroid gland and biopsy of nodule.
The treatment for thyroid cancer involves surgery in which thyroid gland is removed and after sometime medication is given to replace thyroid hormone for life.

– food containing iodine.
– dairy products.
– eggs.
– seafood.
– cured meats.
– baker’s bread.
– soy.
Thyroid diseases are easily diagnosed and treated yet they are often ignored.

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