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How to treat bone cancer by radiotherapy?

Bone Cancer is the cancer that begins in the bone. Primary bone cancer is relatively uncommon with secondary or metastatic cancer. This is cancer that occurs initially in another organ and then spreads to bone tissue.

The most common types of bone cancer includes:
– Osteosarcoma,
– Ewing’s sarcoma,
– Chondrosarcoma,
– Malignant fibrous histiocytoma,
– Fibrosarcoma,
– Chordoma

Diagnosis of bone cancer:
– Check for a complete medical history.
– A description of your symptoms can help.
– A complete physical examination can help find the cause of your symptoms.
– Testing your muscle strength.
– Sensation to touch
– Reflexes
– Certain blood tests
– Plain X-rays
Benign tumors are more likely to have a smooth border while malignant tumors have a ragged border on X-ray images.

– A CT scan
– An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
– Positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
– An angiogram, which is an x-ray of blood vessels.
– A bone scan.
– Obtain a biopsy sample of the tumor.
– Get examined in the laboratory by a pathologist.
– Determine what kind of tumor it is.

What is the treatment for bone cancer?
The best treatment is based on:
– the type of bone cancer,
– the location of the cancer,
– how aggressive the cancer is,
– whether or not the cancer has invaded surrounding or distant tissues (metastasized).

The main types of treatment for bone cancer:
– Surgery,
– Chemotherapy,
– Radiation therapy
– Cryosurgery
These can be used either individually or combined with each other.

Process of Radiotherapy
– The radiation therapy uses high-energy X-ray aimed at the site of the cancer.
– This is to try to kill the cancer cells.
– This treatment is given in small doses daily over a period of days to months.
– Radiation therapy can be used either before or after a potential surgery.
– It depends on the specific type of cancer.
– These high-energy rays are used to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing and dividing.
– A specialist in radiation therapy is called a radiation oncologist.

Types of Radiation Therapy are:
Radiation therapy is a local treatment. It affects cancer cells only in the treated area.
– Radiation can come from a machine (external radiation).
– It can also come from an implant (a small container of radioactive material) placed directly into or near the tumor (internal radiation).
– Some patients need both kinds of radiation therapy.

External Radiation Therapy
– It is usually given on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic 5 days a week for a number of weeks.
– Patients are not radioactive during or after the treatment.

Internal Radiation Therapy
– The patient stays in the hospital for a few days.
– The implant may be temporary or permanent.
– The level of radiation is highest during the hospital stay.
– Once an implant is removed, there is no radioactivity in the body.
– The amount of radiation in a permanent implant goes down to a safe level before the patient leaves.

Other facts
– The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy.
– Radiation therapy is most often used for patients with a tumor that cannot be removed by surgery.
– This is also used where patient may have cancer cells remaining after surgery.
– Radiation therapy may be done before surgery to shrink the tumor also.
– Radiation therapy makes it possible to do less extensive surgery, often preserving the arm or leg.
– Radiation therapy may also be used to relieve pain for people with advanced bone cancer.
– For patients with Ewing’s sarcoma, radiation therapy may be combined with chemotherapy and surgery.

Side effects from radiation therapy may include:
– fatigue
– mild skin reactions
– upset stomach
– loose bowel movements
Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished.

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