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What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia? How it is diagnosed?

• Dyslexia is a condition of difficulty in learning to read.
• Dyslexia can be due to brain injury, hereditary, or hormonal influences.
• Letter and number reversals are a common sign of dyslexia.
• Diagnosis of dyslexia involves reviewing the child’s processing of information from activities like seeing, hearing, and participating in activities.
• Treatment of dyslexia ideally involves planning between the parent(s) and the teachers.

What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?

• Letter and number reversals are the most common warning sign.
• Such reversals are fairly common up to the age of 7 or 8 and usually diminish by that time.
• Difficulty in copying from the board or a book can also suggest problems.
• There may be a general disorganization of written work.
• A child may not be able to remember content.
• Problems with spatial relationships can extend beyond the classroom and be observed on the playground.
• The child may appear to be uncoordinated and have difficulty with organized sports or games.
• Difficulty with left and right is common.
• It is often dominance for either hand has not been established.
• In the early grades, music and dance are often used to enhance academic learning.
• Children with dyslexia can have difficulty moving to the rhythm of the music.
• Auditory problems in dyslexia encompass a variety of functions.
• A child may have difficulty remembering or understanding what he hears.
• Recalling sequences of things or more than one command at a time can be difficult.
• Parts of words or parts of whole sentences may be missed, and words can come out sounding funny.
• The wrong word or a similar word may be used instead.
• Children struggling with this problem may know what they want to say but have trouble finding communicating them with actual words.
• Many subtle signs can be observed in children with dyslexia.
• Children may become withdrawn and appear to be depressed.
• They may begin to act out, drawing attention away from their learning difficulty.
• Problems with self-esteem can arise.
• Peer and sibling interactions can become strained.
• These children may lose their interest in school-related activities and appear to be unmotivated or lazy.
• The emotional symptoms and signs are just as important as the academic and require equal attention.

How is dyslexia diagnosed?

• Dyslexia is a difficult disorder to diagnose.
• There are many factors the psychologist or other health professional reviews to diagnose the disability.
• The testing determines the child’s functional reading level and compares it to reading potential.
• This is evaluated by an intelligence test.
• All aspects of the reading process are examined to pinpoint where the breakdown is occurring.
• The testing further assesses how a child takes in and processes information.
• It lets us know what the child does with the information.
• The tests determine whether a child learns better by hearing information (auditory), looking at information (visual), or doing something (kinesthetic).
• They also assess whether a child performs better when allowed to give information (output), by saying something (oral), or by doing something with their hands (tactile-kinesthetic).
• The tests also evaluate how all of these sensory systems (modalities) work in conjunction with each other.
• Tests administered are standardized and are considered highly reliable.
• The child should not feel as if there is something wrong because testing is occurring.
• Many of the tests use a game-type or puzzle format which can help make the child feel more comfortable.
• Children should get a good night’s sleep prior to the testing and have a good breakfast.
• If the testing is done in a school setting, the teacher can prepare the child by talking about the person who will come and do special work with the child.
• With young children, the psychologist may visit the child’s classroom before the testing so that the child is familiar with him.
• The parent may want to talk to their child about a new person coming to work with them.

Teaching Students with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia The Gift of Dyslexia, Revised and Expanded Overcoming Dyslexia

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