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What is Dyslexia? What are its causes and types?

• Dyslexia is a condition of difficulty in learning to read.
• Dyslexia can be due to brain injury, hereditary, or hormonal influences.
• Letter and number reversals are a common sign of dyslexia.
• Diagnosis of dyslexia involves reviewing the child’s processing of information from activities like seeing, hearing, and participating in activities.
• Treatment of dyslexia ideally involves planning between the parent(s) and the teachers.
• Dyslexia is defined as a learning disability that can hinder a person’s ability to read, write, spell, and sometimes speak.
• Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children and persists throughout life.
• The severity of dyslexia can vary from mild to severe.
• The sooner dyslexia is treated, the more favorable is the outcome.
• Children with dyslexia have difficulty in learning to read despite traditional instruction, at least average intelligence, and an adequate opportunity to learn.
• It is caused by impairment in the brain’s ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language.
• It does not result from vision or hearing problems.
• It is not due to mental retardation, brain damage, or a lack of intelligence.
• Dyslexia can go undetected in the early grades of schooling.
• The child can become frustrated by the difficulty in learning to read.
• The child may show signs of depression and low self-esteem.
• Behavior problems at home as well as at school are frequently seen.
• The child may become unmotivated and develop a dislike for school.

How Does Reading Happen?

To understand dyslexia, it helps to understand reading. You need to do the following steps — and all at once:
• Understand the way speech sounds make up words.
• Focus on printed marks (letters and words).
• Connect speech sounds to letters.
• Blend letter sounds smoothly into words.
• Control eye movements across the page.
• Build images and ideas.
• Compare new ideas with what is already known.
• Store the ideas in memory.

What causes dyslexia? What are the different types of dyslexia?

• There are several types of dyslexia that can affect the child’s ability to spell as well as read.
“Trauma dyslexia” usually occurs after some form of brain trauma or injury to the area of the brain that controls reading and writing.
• It is rarely seen in today’s school-age population.
A second type of dyslexia is referred to as “primary dyslexia.”
• This type of dyslexia is a dysfunction of, rather than damage to, the left side of the brain (cerebral cortex) and does not change with age.
• Individuals with this type are rarely able to read above a fourth-grade level.
• They may struggle with reading, spelling, and writing as adults.
Primary dyslexia is passed in family lines through their genes (hereditary).
• It is found more often in boys than in girls.
A third type of dyslexia is referred to as “secondary” or “developmental dyslexia”.
• It is felt to be caused by hormonal development during the early stages of fetal development.
• Developmental dyslexia diminishes as the child matures.
• It is also more common in boys.
• Dyslexia may affect several different functions.
Visual dyslexia is characterized by number and letter reversals.
• It is the inability to write symbols in the correct sequence.
Auditory dyslexia involves difficulty with sounds of letters or groups of letters.
• The sounds are perceived as jumbled or not heard correctly.
“Dysgraphia” refers to the child’s difficulty holding and controlling a pencil.

Teaching Students with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia The Gift of Dyslexia, Revised and Expanded Overcoming Dyslexia

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