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How does a knee in the human body work?

Introduction to Knee Joint

• Among the many complex joints, knee is one the most complex joint that is found in the human body.
• This joint is a joint with bones, ligaments, muscles and tendons combination.
A knee joint is build such that it enables:
– Sitting
– Standing
– Running
– Walking
– Squatting
– Jumping
– Bending
– Flexing

What are different parts of the Knee?

A knee is made of the:
– femur (thigh bone)
– tibia (shin bone)
– patella (knee cap)
• The cap of the knee covers the knee in order to protect the knee joint.
• Fibula is another bone in the knee which is paralled to the tibia.
• It is in the lower part of the leg.
• It connects to the tibia just below the knee.
• It is a part of the knee but not a part of the knee joint.
• Ligaments are actually bands of elastic tissue that together joins all these bones.
• The two important ligaments of the knee are:
– The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
– The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
• The above two ligaments are also called crucial ligaments.
• These crucial ligaments join femur and tibia.
• They control the movement of the knee forward and backward.
• These ligaments help these movements to be smooth and avoid them to rotate to a limit.
• Tendons are strong cords of tissue.
• These tendons join the bones and muscles of the knee.
• These tendons are the ones that are responsible for the movement of the joint.
• Quadriceps and hamstrings are two important muscles.
• They help in proper movement of the joint.
• The quadriceps, as the name suggests, is a group of four muscles that are present on the front of your thigh.
• They are joined to the top of the patella.
• They are joined by the quadriceps tendon.
• The hamstring muscles, the other muscle, are present on the back of the thigh.
• They are attached to the tibia by ligaments.
• This connection is present just below the knee joint.

Four ligaments connect the femur and tibia:
• The medial collateral ligament (MCL)
• The lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
• The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
• The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

What are functions of the four ligaments?

• MCL: stability internal part of the knee.
• LCL: stability to the lateral part of the knee.
• ACL: stability of the centre part of the knee, controls rotation, controls forward movement of tibia.
• PCL: stability of the centre part of the knee, controls backward movement of tibia.

What are knee surroundings?

• The joint sits in the knee cavity.
• It is enclosed in the knee joint capsule.
• It comprises of a fibrous outer membrane.
• It also comprises of an inner synovial membrane.
• The synovial membrane has synovial fluid.
• It is also called as joint fluid.
• Lubrication of the joint is done by this fluid.
• Femur ends are covered by cartilage.
• Cartilage covers the tibia.
• It also covers the back of the patella.
• Cartilage helps bones to keep apart, by not grinding each other during movement.
• It acts as a joint shock absorb-er.

Movement of Knee

• The knee is a hinge joint
• This joint is a joint that straightens and bends flexibly.
• It can also rotate on movement.
• On straightening, the quadriceps muscles pull.
• They pull on the quadriceps tendon.
• This ten pulls the patella by extending the knee.
• The hamstring muscles contract on bending.
• These muscles pull the tibia backward.
• This causes flexing of knee towards the thigh.
• In this movement, ligaments and muscles and tendons hold the bone together.

Dr. Miller’s Joint Repair Nutramax Labs Nutramax Labs Cosamin Ds Penetrex

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