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Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

The word “Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities” is now a preferred term to describe persons who experience difficulty with thinking and reasoning.

Overview of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

• Intellectual and developmental disabilities can be congenital or acquired.
• For example a severe infection like meningitis.
Other terms for intellectual disability include:
– cognitive disability
– cognitive impairment
• Persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities are slower in development than a normal child.
• They are unable to achieve developmental milestones in the following (some or all) developmental domains.

These can be skills like:
– gross motor
– fine motor
– social
– emotional

School age kids with intellectual and developmental disabilities may have a problem with:
– Memory
– Problem solving
– Attention
– Reading
– Language
– Math
– Visual comprehension

The major consequence of an intellectual and developmental disability can be a limited ability to function in elements of day to day living. This can be like:
– self-care
– independent living
– communication
– social
– interpersonal skills
• Called ‘adaptive behavior,’ this pair of behaviors indicates how well children perform to take care of age-appropriate independence.
• It also includes meeting the personal and social demands.

Adaptive skills include:
• Dressing
• Toileting
• Feeding
• Learning

What is Sub-normality?

• Retardation is often a diagnosis for kids who’ve IQ scores below 70.
• They have delays in at the least two of three areas of adaptive behavior. These include:
– everyday living skills
– communication skills
– social
– interpersonal skills
• Many young kids informed that they have retardation but can learn how to do lots of things.
• They admit they do this more slowly than typically developing children.
• Slowness is usually addressed through early intervention and special education programs.

What is Down syndrome?

• Down syndrome (DS), also known as Trisomy 21, is often a condition wherein an extra genetic chromosome adds on causing delays in the child development, both mentally and physically.
• The physical characteristics and medical problems related to Down syndrome may vary widely from child to child.
• Even though children with DS need a ton of medical attention, others lead healthy lives.
• Though Down syndrome cannot be prevented, it could be detected before the child comes into this world.
• The health conditions that might have to go together with DS can be treated.
• Many resources are available to help children and their families who’re managing the condition.

Causes
• Normally, before conception a child inherits genetic information from the parents.
• This is in the form of 46 chromosomes.
• 23 of them are from the mother and 23 are from the father.
• In Down syndrome, a young child gets an extra chromosome 21.
• This generates a total of 47 chromosomes as opposed to 46.
• It’s this extra genetic material that produces the physical features and developmental delays linked to DS.

Physical characteristics which are noticeable at birth:
– low muscle
– flat nose
– small mouth and ears
– slanted eyes
– short arms
– a large head

What is Autistic Disorder?

• Most children with autism provide an associated low IQ.
• Kids with autism identified as ‘high functioning’ offer an IQ score above 70
• Children informed they have Asperger’s Disorder will often have no intellectual impairment.
• They could have nonverbal learning disabilities.
• The low IQ score will not determine the opportunity of a youngster with autism.

Conclusion
• With the support in their families several people can lead productive and satisfying lives.
• People who have intellectual developmental disabilities may require benefit personal care.
They can be like:
– Bathing
– Dressing
– Eating
– Activities of everyday living like cooking
– Managing money
– Shopping
– Health
– Safety
– Taking medications
– Crossing the street
– Mobility
– Social skills
– Communicating wants and needs.

Nursing Care for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Successful Transition Programs Intellectual Disability

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