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What is low vision? What are causes of low vision? – Part 1

• Individuals with low vision possess decreased vision, regardless of using the best suited corrective lenses.
• Low vision might be a consequence of either congenital illness like retinitis pigmentosa or Leber’s congenital amaurosis or of attained conditions like optic atrophy.
• It is dealt within a sub-specialty of optometry as well as ophthalmology known as “low vision”.

Classifying Low Vision

• Any individual with reduced vision not resolved by spectacles or contact lenses is visually aggravated.
• The World Health Organization makes use of the following categories of visual impairment.
When the eyesight in the better eye with most effective glasses correction is:
– 20/30 to 20/60: is known as mild vision loss, or near-normal vision
– 20/70 to 20/160: is regarded as moderate visual impairment, or moderate low vision

Legal Blindness

– 20/200 to 20/400: It is regarded as severe visual impairment, or severe low vision
– 20/500 to 20/1, 000: It is regarded as profound visual impairment, or profound low vision
– Greater Than 20/1, 000: It is regarded as near-total visual impairment, or near total blindness
– Zero Light Perception: It is regarded as total visual impairment, or total blindness
• In addition there are degrees of visual impairment depending on visual field loss (lack of peripheral vision).
• In US , anyone with vision that simply cannot be corrected to much better than 20/200 in the best eye , or who may have 20 degrees ( diameter ) or much less of visual field left is regarded as legally blind or eligible for disability classification and probable inclusion in various government sponsored programs .
Pathologies that may impair vision are:
– Cataracts
– Glaucoma
– Uveitis
– Macular degeneration
– Corneal opacity
– Trachoma
– Diabetic retinopathy
– Myopia magna
– Stargardt’s disease
– Albinism
– Retinitis pigmentosa
– Amblyopia

Distribution of Visual Impairment

1. By Age
• Visual deterioration is unequally spread across age groups.
• Greater than 82% of most individuals who are blind are fifty years of age and older, even though they signify merely 19% of the world’s human population.
• Because of the anticipated number of years survived in blindness (blind years), childhood blindness continues to be an important problem, with approximately 1.4 million blind kids below age fifteen.

2. By Gender
• Available studies regularly reveal that in every single area of the globe and at all ages, women have a substantially greater risk of being visually impaired when compared with men.

3. By Geography
• Visual impairment is not spread uniformly across the world.
• A lot more than 90% of the world’s visually impaired reside in growing countries.

What Causes Low Vision?

Eye ailments or conditions might be accountable for visual impairment. A few of the more prevalent causes consist of:
1. Diabetic Retinopathy
• Vision and/or visual functioning can vary from one day to other because of diabetes.
• Diabetes could cause blood vessels that nurture the retina to build tiny, irregular branches that leak.
• This could obstruct with vision and, with time, it could cause serious injury to the retina.
• Laser procedures and surgical procedures are employed to decrease its further advancement, but systemic management of diabetes is a popular factor.

2. Glaucoma
• Glaucoma is a type of injury to the optic nerve, which could lead to vision impairment.
• The optic nerve damage in glaucoma could be because of the interior pressure in the eye accumulating due to issues with the flow or drainage of fluid within the eye, or may result without greater intraocular pressure because of inadequate flow of blood to the optic nerve.
• There are absolutely no initial symptoms in the most popular form, but the very first indications of damage are side vision problems and issues with night vision.
• Early analysis and therapy with drugs or occasionally surgery can reduce vision loss.

Low Vision Rehabilitation Foundations of Low Vision Macular Disease

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