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What is low vision? What are causes of low vision? – Part 2

• Individuals with low vision possess decreased vision, regardless of using the best suited corrective lenses.
• Low vision might be a consequence of either congenital illness like retinitis pigmentosa or Leber’s congenital amaurosis or of attained conditions like optic atrophy.
• It is dealt within a sub-specialty of optometry as well as ophthalmology known as “low vision”.

What Causes Low Vision?

3. Macular Degeneration
• This is an illness that influences the retina, the light sensitive lining in the back of the eye wherein images are concentrated.
• The macula—the area on the retina accountable for sharp central vision—deteriorates leading to blurred vision that may cause issues like difficulty in reading and for many a blind spot in the central section of vision.
• The most popular type of age-related macular degeneration is referred to as non-exudative or “dry” form, which generally leads to more gradually progressive vision loss.
• A lot faster and serious vision loss originates from exudative, or the “wet” type, of macular degeneration, when irregular blood vessels grow under the macula and ooze fluid and blood.
• Both exudative and non-exudative forms of macular degeneration are age-related, and the primary reason for blindness in people over fifty.
• Latest studies approximate that over 1 .6 million older Americans are influenced.
• The specific cause is unidentified.
• Even though age is the main underlying cause to the growth and development of macular degeneration, cigarette smoking and nutrition may also play a role in the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

4. Retinitis Pigmentosa
• Retinitis pigmentosa slowly ruins night vision, seriously decreases side vision, and can lead to total impairment.
• An inherited illness, it generally generates its first symptom—night blindness—in childhood days or adolescence.

5. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
• Earlier, referred to as retrolental fibroplasia, retinopathy of prematurity takes place in infants born prematurely and is attributable to high oxygen levels in incubators in the course of the critical neonatal period.

6. Retinal Detachment
• Retinal detachment can result in overall impairment in the detached section of the afflicted eye.
• It relates to the retina separating from the root layer.
Reasons are openings in:
– Retina
– Eye trauma
– Infection
– Blood vessel disturbance
– Tumor
• By means of early diagnosis, the majority of detached retinas may be surgically re-attached with partial to total restoration of vision in the event surgery is conducted in a well-timed fashion.

7. Cataracts
• A cataract is a clouding of portion or most of the lens inside the eye.
• This clouding interferes with light approaching the retina in the back of the eye, leading to a universal lack of vision.
Reasons are:
– Aging
– Long-term subjection to the sun’s ultraviolet emission
– Injury
– Disease
– Inherited disorders
• If the eye is healthy, a cataract may be surgically eradicated and vision renewed, generally with intraocular lens implants.
• Cataract surgery possesses an excellent success rate in otherwise healthy eyes.
• Nevertheless, you can still find people for whom cataract surgery is impossible as well as individuals with other ocular diseases which may require low vision rehabilitation to increase the remaining vision.

8. Attained Brain Injury
Vision may also be lost or damaged because of:
– head injuries
– brain damage
– stroke
Signs and symptoms may include:
– reduced visual acuity
– visual field
– contrast sensitivity
– blurred vision
– eye misalignment
– poor judgment of depth
– glare sensitivity
– confusion when performing visual tasks
– difficulty reading
– double vision
– headaches
– dizziness
– abnormal body posture
– balance problems

Low Vision Rehabilitation Foundations of Low Vision Macular Disease

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